Episode 50 – Violins and Trumpets

The French & Dutch defined West Indian piracy in the early 1680s. Three names in particular – Laurens de Graaf, Michel de Grammont, & Nicholas van Hoorn – were the titans of the era. Today we introduce them.

Transcript

Sources

Calendar of State Papers: Colonial, America, and West Indies

Pirates of the Americas by David F. Marley

The Pirates Pact by Douglas R. Burgess

Pirates the Complete History from 1300 BC to the Present Day by Angus Konstam

Buccaneers of the Caribbean by Jon Latimer

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